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If you ever wondered? Here it is How Europeans developed their white skin.

Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in historyUniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
Most of us think of Europe as the ancestral home of white people. But a new study shows that pale skin, as well as other traits such as tallness and the ability to digest milk as adults, arrived in most of the continent relatively recently. The work, presented here last week at the 84th annual meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, offers dramatic evidence of recent evolution in Europe and shows that most modern Europeans don’t look much like those of 8000 years ago.

The origins of Europeans have come into sharp focus in the past year as researchers have sequenced the genomes of ancient populations, rather than only a few individuals. By comparing key parts of the DNA across the genomes of 83 ancient individuals from archaeological sites throughout Europe, the international team of researchers reported earlier this year that Europeans today are a mix of the blending of at least three ancient populations of hunter-gatherers and farmers who moved into Europe in separate migrations over the past 8000 years. The study revealed that a massive migration of Yamnaya herders from the steppes north of the Black Sea may have brought Indo-European languages to Europe about 4500 years ago.

Now, a new study from the same team drills down further into that remarkable data to search for genes that were under strong natural selection—including traits so favorable that they spread rapidly throughout Europe in the past 8000 years. By comparing the ancient European genomes with those of recent ones from the 1000 Genomes Project, population geneticist Iain Mathieson, a postdoc in the Harvard University lab of population geneticist David 🤬 , found five genes associated with changes in diet and skin pigmentation that underwent strong natural selection.

First, the scientists confirmed an earlier report that the hunter-gatherers in Europe could not digest the sugars in milk 8000 years ago, according to a poster. They also noted an interesting twist: The first farmers also couldn’t digest milk. The farmers who came from the Near East about 7800 years ago and the Yamnaya pastoralists who came from the steppes 4800 years ago lacked the version of the LCT gene that allows adults to digest sugars in milk. It wasn’t until about 4300 years ago that lactose tolerance swept through Europe.

When it comes to skin color, the team found a patchwork of evolution in different places, and three separate genes that produce light skin, telling a complex story for how European’s skin evolved to be much lighter during the past 8000 years. The modern humans who came out of Africa to originally settle Europe about 40,000 years are presumed to have had dark skin, which is advantageous in sunny latitudes. And the new data confirm that about 8500 years ago, early hunter-gatherers in Spain, Luxembourg, and Hungary also had darker skin: They lacked versions of two genes—SLC24A5 and SLC45A2—that lead to depigmentation and, therefore, pale skin in Europeans today.

But in the far north—where low light levels would favor pale skin—the team found a different picture in hunter-gatherers: Seven people from the 7700-year-old Motala archaeological site in southern Sweden had both light skin gene variants, SLC24A5 and SLC45A2. They also had a third gene, HERC2/OCA2, which causes blue eyes and may also contribute to light skin and blond hair. Thus ancient hunter-gatherers of the far north were already pale and blue-eyed, but those of central and southern Europe had darker skin.

Then, the first farmers from the Near East arrived in Europe; they carried both genes for light skin. As they interbred with the indigenous hunter-gatherers, one of their light-skin genes swept through Europe, so that central and southern Europeans also began to have lighter skin. The other gene variant, SLC45A2, was at low levels until about 5800 years ago when it swept up to high frequency.

The team also tracked complex traits, such as height, which are the result of the interaction of many genes. They found that selection strongly favored several gene variants for tallness in northern and central Europeans, starting 8000 years ago, with a boost coming from the Yamnaya migration, starting 4800 years ago. The Yamnaya have the greatest genetic potential for being tall of any of the populations, which is consistent with measurements of their ancient skeletons. In contrast, selection favored shorter people in Italy and Spain starting 8000 years ago, according to the paper now posted on the bioRxiv preprint server. Spaniards, in particular, shrank in stature 6000 years ago, perhaps as a result of adapting to colder temperatures and a poor diet.

Surprisingly, the team found no immune genes under intense selection, which is counter to hypotheses that diseases would have increased after the development of agriculture.

The paper doesn’t specify why these genes might have been under such strong selection. But the likely explanation for the pigmentation genes is to maximize vitamin D synthesis, said paleoanthropologist Nina Jablonski of Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), University Park, as she looked at the poster’s results at the meeting. People living in northern latitudes often don’t get enough UV to synthesize vitamin D in their skin so natural selection has favored two genetic solutions to that problem—evolving pale skin that absorbs UV more efficiently or favoring lactose tolerance to be able to digest the sugars and vitamin D naturally found in milk. “What we thought was a fairly simple picture of the emergence of depigmented skin in Europe is an exciting patchwork of selection as populations disperse into northern latitudes,” Jablonski says. “This data is fun because it shows how much recent evolution has taken place.”

Anthropological geneticist George Perry, also of Penn State, notes that the work reveals how an individual’s genetic potential is shaped by their diet and adaptation to their habitat. “We’re getting a much more detailed picture now of how selection works.”

http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/04/how-europeans-evolved-white-skin


TL:DR

The genes responsible for Europeans pigment is SLC24A5 and SLC45A2

-They were previously darker complexion

-It was Sexual selection -

Sexual selection is a mode of natural selection where members of one biological sex choose mates of the other sex to mate with (intersexual selection), and compete with members of the same sex for access to members of the opposite sex (intrasexual selection).

http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_28


-So now we can lay the rest of the pseudo claims that our ancestors were trying to give reason why Europeans exist.
«13

Comments

  • Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in history UniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Here is the *Cliff notes* version of the article.

    White skin, is, like other physical characteristics, evolutionary adaptations to changing climatic conditions. In addition to sexual selection.

    For instance. Africans from Western portion of the continent have wide nostrils. This is an evolutionary adaption to compensate for extreme temperatures (hot as 🤬 ) so the nostrils began to widen over time, in order to get more air into the lungs. Remember, evolutionary changes don't happen over a generation, they usually occur over a millennium.

    Eskimos developed the epicantic eye fold (🤬 eyes) in response to cold, snowy weather conditions. Whenever the snow reflects off the snow, the blinding effect makes your eyes "squint." And since tribalism and ethnocentrism are usually the default instincts that promote evolutionary survival, minimal genetic diversity is done, therefore these hereditary traits are passed on from generation to generation.

    Nature is color blind. And it sexually selects the strongest genes possible to propagate the species.

    This is why white people fear miscegenation (mixing of the races) so much. It goes against there genetic survival, and on a surface level......Who wouldn't want their kids/Grandkids to look like them?

    Understand that the world is a Billiards table, with all the world's races as colorful 🤬 . It just so happens that the White ball, that barely "scratches" the surface on the table for fear of going into a hole in a corner of genetic oblivion. Constantly knocks the hell out of the Red ball (Native Americans), "bounces" from one end of the table to strike down the Yellow ball (Asians), takes over the territory of the Brown ball (Spanish) and subsequently tries to keep it from reentering the "game."

    And lastly, the White ball, zig-zagging across the table in a strategic attempt to stay in front of the 8-ball (Because we know its bad luck to stand behind the big bad 8-ball). If it can knock off the Black ball, that means its game over.

    This metaphorical illustration deftly encapsulates the precarious position of White 🤬 . Ever wonder why most abortion clinics are located in mostly urban areas? Disproportionate representation in "Penal" institutions? etc, etc. Because of the inherent fear of genetic annihilation via "black 🤬 ."



    The fact is that they were doing alright with darker skin to begin with in the colder climates. I believed that's why they are so adamant about white skin, because it was a sign of wealth and prosperity in ancient Europe.

  • Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in history UniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
    skpjr78 wrote: »
    Genetics are greater than hate. Europeans have been on a worldwide killing spree for the past 500 years and they are still outnumbered by people of color and they always will be. Thats why they fear the black man and the black 🤬 in particular. Two black people can create a white person (albino) but two white people can never create a black person. If you really want to understand white supremacy study Mendels Law of genetics. Science is on our side. Hate is in theirs.

    We can erase white people from the face of the earth one nut at a time. We don't need to go the 🤬 route and commit the evil global atrocities that they did. All we have to do is 🤬 their daughters and one by one the cac will return to his natural melinated self. Our sperm>>>>>>>their hate

    Also, their birth rates are lower than their natural deaths per year. But we need to making quality people and conscious people that are working and visionaries.
  • Phantom PainPhantom Pain Members Posts: 678 ✭✭✭✭✭
    So white skin didn't develop from lack of sunlight and high presence of radiation in the caves of Europe when they migrated north from Africa?
  • Mr.LVMr.LV Members Posts: 14,089 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Here is the *Cliff notes* version of the article.

    White skin, is, like other physical characteristics, evolutionary adaptations to changing climatic conditions. In addition to sexual selection.

    For instance. Africans from Western portion of the continent have wide nostrils. This is an evolutionary adaption to compensate for extreme temperatures (hot as 🤬 ) so the nostrils began to widen over time, in order to get more air into the lungs. Remember, evolutionary changes don't happen over a generation, they usually occur over a millennium.

    Eskimos developed the epicantic eye fold (🤬 eyes) in response to cold, snowy weather conditions. Whenever the sun reflects off the snow, the blinding effect makes your eyes "squint." And since tribalism and ethnocentrism are usually the default instincts that promote evolutionary survival, minimal genetic diversity is done, therefore these hereditary traits are passed on from generation to generation.

    Nature is color blind. And it sexually selects the strongest genes possible to propagate the species.

    This is why white people fear miscegenation (mixing of the races) so much. It goes against there genetic survival, and on a surface level......Who wouldn't want their kids/Grandkids to look like them?

    Understand that the world is a Billiards table, with all the world's races as colorful 🤬 . It just so happens that the White ball, that barely "scratches" the surface on the table for fear of going into a hole in a corner of genetic oblivion. Constantly knocks the hell out of the Red ball (Native Americans), "bounces" from one end of the table to strike down the Yellow ball (Asians), takes over the territory of the Brown ball (Spanish) and subsequently tries to keep it from reentering the "game."

    And lastly, the White ball, zig-zagging across the table in a strategic attempt to stay in front of the 8-ball (Because we know its bad luck to stand behind the big bad 8-ball). If it can knock off the Black ball, that means its game over.

    This metaphorical illustration deftly encapsulates the precarious position of White 🤬 . Ever wonder why most abortion clinics are located in mostly urban areas? Disproportionate representation in "Penal" institutions? etc, etc. Because of the inherent fear of genetic annihilation via "black 🤬 ."



    Reminds me of that scene in Boomerang .
    https://youtu.be/Q_1dZe-yFjI
    
  • Will MunnyWill Munny Eatin pussy and kickin ass Members Posts: 30,199 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Black 🤬 you say?
  • skpjr78skpjr78 Members Posts: 7,311 ✭✭✭✭✭
    edited April 2016
    Ajackson17 wrote: »
    skpjr78 wrote: »
    Genetics are greater than hate. Europeans have been on a worldwide killing spree for the past 500 years and they are still outnumbered by people of color and they always will be. Thats why they fear the black man and the black 🤬 in particular. Two black people can create a white person (albino) but two white people can never create a black person. If you really want to understand white supremacy study Mendels Law of genetics. Science is on our side. Hate is in theirs.

    We can erase white people from the face of the earth one nut at a time. We don't need to go the 🤬 route and commit the evil global atrocities that they did. All we have to do is 🤬 their daughters and one by one the cac will return to his natural melinated self. Our sperm>>>>>>>their hate

    Also, their birth rates are lower than their natural deaths per year. But we need to making quality people and conscious people that are working and visionaries.

    This is where white people went wrong. I totally agree that we need to create a generation of conscious and visionary people. We need to work on the inside of the human to raise him/her to a higher level of being.

    White people were dumb and evil enough to believe that whiteness in and of itself somehow made them a more superior being. They never worked on perfecting the inside b/c somebody somewhere for some reason told them that their white outer layer made them superior so they never took the time to perfect their inside humanity.

    As a matter of fact they rode the worst parts of their nature to worldwide dominance. They commited acts that no other people in history have done on a scale no one else could imagine. From living like animals in caves to creating and using nuclear weapons the evil, blood thirsty, beast like nature of the European has no equal and history proves me right. The problem is that they have come to worldwide dominance based on evil so in their eyes evil works. If it worked for their fathers why wouldn't it work for them? This is their mindset and this pattern of hatred and white supremacy continues unabated to this day.
  • Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in history UniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
    So white skin didn't develop from lack of sunlight and high presence of radiation in the caves of Europe when they migrated north from Africa?

    Nope, it was a mutation in a few people, like blue eyes, and light color hair mutations. It was preferred selection like black people preferring white people to have children with. It's the same 🤬 . That's what the evidence is showing, it's sexual selection not natural selection. It means the ancient europeans were dark skin were 🤬 over white skin, like some negros do today. That's how white people exist.
  • Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in history UniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
    skpjr78 wrote: »
    Ajackson17 wrote: »
    skpjr78 wrote: »
    Genetics are greater than hate. Europeans have been on a worldwide killing spree for the past 500 years and they are still outnumbered by people of color and they always will be. Thats why they fear the black man and the black 🤬 in particular. Two black people can create a white person (albino) but two white people can never create a black person. If you really want to understand white supremacy study Mendels Law of genetics. Science is on our side. Hate is in theirs.

    We can erase white people from the face of the earth one nut at a time. We don't need to go the 🤬 route and commit the evil global atrocities that they did. All we have to do is 🤬 their daughters and one by one the cac will return to his natural melinated self. Our sperm>>>>>>>their hate

    Also, their birth rates are lower than their natural deaths per year. But we need to making quality people and conscious people that are working and visionaries.

    This is where white people went wrong. I totally agree that we need to creat a generation of conscious and visionary people. We need to work on inside of the human to raise him/her to a higher level of being. White people were dumb and evil enough to believe that whiteness in and of itself somehow made them a more superior being. They never worked on perfecting the inside b/c somebody somewhere for some reason told them that their white outer layer made them superior so they never took the time to perfect their inside humanity. As a matter of fact they rode the worst parts of their nature to worldwide dominance. They committed acts that no other people in history had done on a scale no one else could imagine. From living like animals in caves to creating and using nuclear weapons the evil, blood thirsty, beast like nature of the European has no equal and history proves me right.

    Well, Einstein carried the Y haplogroup marker of East Africans so long the line an African man reproduced with a Jewish woman and his son and his son and so on kept reproducing with jewish women that created Einstein. Same with 🤬 and Napoleon( but he knew this 🤬 though and hid it. His ancestry was moorish ancestry)

    I was listening to a radio blog talk Amen Ra Squad and various members talked about Freemasonry and it was for to build character in the man to make good men better men. And this was primarily African and those in the masonic lodges of European descent know this, but they never built upon the good character aspect. Character was preached more than the scientific thought in ancient Kemetic schools. Check out the laws of Ma'at.
  • babelipsssbabelipsss Members Posts: 2,517 ✭✭✭✭✭
    So what you are saying is that black people made white people.
  • Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in history UniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
    babelipsss wrote: »
    So what you are saying is that black people made white people.

    Did you read the article from Science Magazine? @babelipsss

    It's stating that there was mutations in the black sea which brought forth a lot of the Europeans features they currently have and it was through sexual selection (Read up on sexual selection if you don't know what it is) that these genes slowly became the dominant feature in Europe.
  • usmarin3usmarin3 Members Posts: 38,013 ✭✭✭✭✭
    babelipsss wrote: »
    So what you are saying is that black people made white people.

    🤬 erectus is the Rakim of the all the humanoid species. They were the first to leave Africa and went on to spawn Asians, Arabs, Europeans,etc.
  • babelipsssbabelipsss Members Posts: 2,517 ✭✭✭✭✭
    edited April 2016
    I read the article. Sexual selection means purposeful breeding. I also read all the responses. I guess I asked the question wrong. What I meant is why do you care where white people came from?
  • usmarin3usmarin3 Members Posts: 38,013 ✭✭✭✭✭
    edited April 2016
    How is it selective breeding when it's known that Cromagnon Man was 🤬 Neanderthal. That's who modern European are, a combination of both species. I think mutation played the biggest role imo, not selective breeding. Different species developed differently based on environment due to the conditions of the environment.
  • Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in history UniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
    usmarin3 wrote: »
    babelipsss wrote: »
    So what you are saying is that black people made white people.

    🤬 erectus is the Rakim of the all the humanoid species. They were the first to leave Africa and went on to spawn Asians, Arabs, Europeans,etc.

    That would be incorrect, modern man as in Africans, Eastern Asian, Europeans, Western Asians, Aboriginal Australians, Indians and etc developed as modern humans in Africa first. Then mutated and reproduce with Neanderthals and denisovans. There is talk that we did descend from 🤬 Erectus, but the talk is that 🤬 Sapian Sapian is the product of different hominids reproducing that spawned us. Even still in Africa we reproduced with archiac humans

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaic_human_admixture_with_modern_humans#Archaic_African_hominins
  • Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in history UniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
    edited April 2016
    babelipsss wrote: »
    I read the article. Sexual selection means purposeful breeding. I also read all the responses. I guess I asked the question wrong. What I meant is why do you care where white people came from?

    Because I love genetics that's why and it's interesting of the human journey and development and gives insight on how our mutations and development occurred.

    "Sexual selection is often powerful enough to produce features that are harmful to the individual's survival. For example, extravagant and colorful tail feathers or fins are likely to attract predators as well as interested members of the opposite sex."

    http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_28
  • mryounggunmryounggun Loading up my Grey Matter Glock Members Posts: 13,451 ✭✭✭✭✭
    I gotta say...I've never once wondered that.
  • Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in history UniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
    usmarin3 wrote: »
    How is it selective breeding when it's known that Cromagnon Man was 🤬 Neanderthal. That's who modern European are, a combination of both species. I think mutation played the biggest role imo, not selective breeding. Different species developed differently based on environment due to the conditions of the environment.

    Dude, read the link the mutation of the genes that produce the skin pigmentation of Europeans developed long after Cro-Magnon man. They were still dark skin 8,000 years .

    http://www.livescience.com/42838-european-hunter-gatherer-genome-sequenced.html
    Then, the first farmers from the Near East arrived in Europe; they carried both genes for light skin. As they interbred with the indigenous hunter-gatherers, one of their light-skin genes swept through Europe, so that central and southern Europeans also began to have lighter skin. The other gene variant, SLC45A2, was at low levels until about 5800 years ago when it swept up to high frequency.

    Read this it's very important. Mixing with neaderthals didn't make Europeans light skin.

    http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2952418/Neanderthals-interbred-longer-modern-humans-east-Asia-DNA-reveals.html

    Asians have more neanderthal mixing and yet most aren't light as Europeans.
  • skpjr78skpjr78 Members Posts: 7,311 ✭✭✭✭✭
    babelipsss wrote: »
    I read the article. Sexual selection means purposeful breeding. I also read all the responses. I guess I asked the question wrong. What I meant is why do you care where white people came from?

    i personally don't care where white people came from. that isn't a concern of mine. my primary concern is to do away with white supremacy and all oof its byproducts. white supremacy is a lieand its the foundation on which the majority of the problems in our society are built. if you can scientifically and logically undercut the pinnings of white supremacy and get people to wake up and deal with scientific an historic facts maybe we can destroy white supremacy once and for all and begin fixing the problems that it has caused over the past 500 years.
  • jonojono Right fist = power, left fist = unity Members Posts: 30,280 ✭✭✭✭✭
    All you really need to know is one breed of flower can be several different colors.

    Nature prefers diversity, all humans do not have the same genes because as we have seen in cases of 🤬 too many of the same genes are harmful to development and evolution.

    The rest of that 🤬 is irrelevant.
  • Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in history UniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
    jono wrote: »
    All you really need to know is one breed of flower can be several different colors.

    Nature prefers diversity, all humans do not have the same genes because as we have seen in cases of 🤬 too many of the same genes are harmful to development and evolution.

    The rest of that 🤬 is irrelevant.

    Of course we don't bare the same genes and diversity is the key to life. Bottle neck populations create hazardous mutations and slowly can cause extinction.
  • jonojono Right fist = power, left fist = unity Members Posts: 30,280 ✭✭✭✭✭
    Ajackson17 wrote: »
    jono wrote: »
    All you really need to know is one breed of flower can be several different colors.

    Nature prefers diversity, all humans do not have the same genes because as we have seen in cases of 🤬 too many of the same genes are harmful to development and evolution.

    The rest of that 🤬 is irrelevant.

    Of course we don't bare the same genes and diversity is the key to life. Bottle neck populations create hazardous mutations and slowly can cause extinction.

    Thats all you need to know. Most people don't have the acumen to understand science on a genetic level. Its best to just understand that different genes are necessary for human survival.
  • Ajackson17Ajackson17 On the shoulders of Giants and Elders in history UniverseMembers Posts: 22,501 ✭✭✭✭✭
    jono wrote: »
    Ajackson17 wrote: »
    jono wrote: »
    All you really need to know is one breed of flower can be several different colors.

    Nature prefers diversity, all humans do not have the same genes because as we have seen in cases of 🤬 too many of the same genes are harmful to development and evolution.

    The rest of that 🤬 is irrelevant.

    Of course we don't bare the same genes and diversity is the key to life. Bottle neck populations create hazardous mutations and slowly can cause extinction.

    Thats all you need to know. Most people don't have the acumen to understand science on a genetic level. Its best to just understand that different genes are necessary for human survival.

    Exactly. I just love science and always have in my life which I should have been a scientist, but I hate testing and the works. But I'm seriously thinking of going back to school and switch majors.
  • Lou CypherLou Cypher Make Reasonable Choices. H. E. Double Hockey SticksMembers Posts: 52,520 ✭✭✭✭✭
    really bummed out it wasnt creation in a lab.
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